1. Anne Boleyn (by an Unknown Artist), 16th c., National Portrait Gallery, London
In regards to the Holbein sketch (Fig. 2), John Rowlands and David Starkey have proposed that the sitter was indeed Anne Boleyn based on the appearance of the lady.3 She is seen in three-quarter profile dressed in a furred robe over a chemise laced at the throat, and wears a simple undercap. Rather than the seductive Anne Boleyn of legend, the sitter's looks are rather plain, and she bears an unflattering pronounced jawline. Rowlands and Starkey have argued that such 'undress' on the part of this ‘royal’ sitter was a novelty of sorts to relax the dictates of court etiquette. However, it seems unlikely that Anne with her much commented upon sense of style would have permitted herself to be depicted as such.
2. Portrait inscribed 'Anna Bollein Queen' (by Hans Holbein), c. 1530's, Royal Collection
3. Unknown Lady (attributed to Lucas Horenbolte), c. 1525 to early 1530's, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
4. William Carey (by an Unknown Artist), 16th c., Private Collection
William Carey (Fig. 4) as a possible Horenbolte sitter is significant in that he was married to Anne Boleyn's sister Mary. The connection with the Boleyns suggests that Horenbolte and his family may have come to England and been initially patronized by Anne and Mary's father Thomas Boleyn, the Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, whom they may have already known when the latter served as ambassador to the Low Countries.19 Tree ring analysis of the Carey portrait (Private Collection), originally thought to have been painted from life, had actually revealed it to be an Elizabethan copy, probably commissioned by Carey’s son Henry, Lord Hunsdon.20 What is of great interest is that the panel may have been derived from a miniature portrait on the basis of costume evidence.21 As Carey died of the sweating sickness in 1528, a supposed miniature of him painted from life would have had to have been done by Horenbolte who was already engaged in painting miniatures at the King’s Court in around the middle 1520’s.
6. Anne Boleyn (by Renold Elstrack), in Henry Holland's Baziliwlogia (1618), National Portrait Gallery, London